In a special report for Carrier Management, R.J. Briggs, Energy Economist for Praedicat, pulled together highlights of current scientific research on the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing. Listed below are the sources he cites in the accompanying article, “Following the Science on Fracking, the Environment and Human Health.”
Adgate, J., B. Goldstein and L. McKenzie (2014). “Potential Public Health Hazards, Exposures, and Health Effects from Unconventional Natural Gas Development.” Environmental Science & Technology. 48, 15 (August), 8307-8320.
Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission (2012). Arkansas Hydraulic Fracturing State Review.p. 15. Online: www.aogc.state.ar.us/notices/AR_HFR_FINAL.pdf. Accessed September 2014.
California Council on Science and Technology (2014). “Advanced Well Stimulation Technologies in California: An Independent Review of Scientific and Technical Information.” ISBN 978-1-930117-93-8. Online: www.ccst.us/publications/2014/2014wst.pdf. Accessed September 2014.
Council of Canadian Academies (2014). “Environmental Impacts of Shale Gas Extraction in Canada.” ISBN 978-1-926558-77-6. Online: www.scienceadvice.ca/en/assessments/completed/shale-gas.aspx. Accessed September 2014.
Davies, R., S. Mathias, J. Moss, S. Hustoft, L. Newport (2012). “Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go?” Marine and Petroleum Geology. 37, 1 (November), 1-6.
Ellsworth, W. “Injection-Induced Earthquakes” (2013). Science.341, 12 (July) 142-149.
Engelder, T., L. Cathles, T. Bryndziac (2014). “The fate of residual treatment water in gas shale.” Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources.7 (September) 33-48.
Esswein, E., J. Snawder, B. King, M. Breitenstein, and M. Alexander-Scott (2014). “Preliminary Field Studies on Worker Exposures to Volatile Chemicals During Oil and Gas Extraction Flowback and Production Testing Operations.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: NIOSH Science Blog. Online: blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2014/08/21/flowback-2/. Accessed September 2014.
Flewelling, S., M. Tymchak, and N. Warpinski (2013). “Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations.” Geophysical Research Letters. 40, 14 (July 28), 3602-3606.
Fontenot, B., L. Hunt, Z. Hildenbrand, D. Carlton Jr., H. Oka, J. Walton, D. Hopkins, A. Osorio, B. Bjorndal, Q. Hu, and K. Schug (2013). “An Evaluation of Water Quality in Private Drinking Water Wells Near Natural Gas Extraction Sites in the Barnett Shale Formation.” Environmental Science & Technology.47, 17, 10032-10040.
Gold, R. and T. McGinty (2013). “Energy Boom Puts Wells in America’s Backyards.” The Wall Street Journal.Oct. 25.
Groundwater Protection Council and Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission (2014). FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry. Online: fracfocus.org. Accessed September 2014.
Healy, J., W. Rubey, D. Griggs, and C. Raleigh (1968). “The Denver Earthquakes.” Science. 161, 1301-1310.
Helmig, D., C. Thompson, J. Evans, P. Boylan, J. Hueber, and J. Park (2014). “Highly Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Organic Compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.” Environmental Science & Technology. 48, 9, 4707-4715.
Inside Climate News, The Center for Public Integrity, and The Weather Channel (2014). “Fracking the Eagle Ford Shale: Big Oil & Bad Air on the Texas Prairie.” Feb. 18. Online: insideclimatenews.org/fracking-eagle-ford-shale-big-oil-bad-air-texas-prairie. Accessed September 2014.
Jackson, R., A. Vengosh, T. Darrah, N. Warner, A. Down, R. Poreda, S. Osborn, K. Zhao, and J. Karr (2013). “Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110, 28, 11250-11255.
Keranen, K., H. Savage, G. Abers, E. Cochran (2013). “Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: Links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake.” Geology. 42, 9. doi:10.1130/G34045.1.
Kim, W-Y. (2013). “Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 118, 7 (July), 3506-3518.
Lustgarten, A. (2012). “So, Is Dimock’s Water Really Safe to Drink?” ProPublica. March 20. Online: www.propublica.org/article/so-is-dimocks-water-really-safe-to-drink. Accessed September 2014.
Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health (2014). “Potential Public Health Impacts of Natural Gas Development and Production in the Marcellus Shale in Western Maryland.” University of Maryland, College Park: School of Public Health. Online: www.marcellushealth.org. Accessed September 2014.
McKenzie, L., R. Guo, R. Witter, D. Savitz, L. Newman, and J. Adgate (2014). “Birth Outcomes and Maternal Residential Proximity to Natural Gas Development in Rural Colorado.” Environmental Health Perspectives.122, 4, 412-417.
Myers, T. (2012). “Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers.” Groundwater. 50, 6 (November/December) 872-882.
National Academies of Sciences, Division on Earth & Life Studies (2012). “Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies.” National Research Council: Washington, D.C. Online: dels.nas.edu/Report/Induced-Seismicity-Potential-Energy-Technologies/13355. Accessed September 2014.
Nowlin, S. (2014). “Eagle Ford may recycle half of its wastewater within five years.” San Antonio Business Journal.June 6. Online: www.bizjournals.com/sanantonio/blog/eagle-ford-shale-insight/2014/06/eagle-ford-may-recycle-half-of-its-wastewater.html?page=all. Accessed September 2014.
Onishi, N. (2014). “A California Oil Field Yields Another Prized Commodity.” The New York Times.July 7, A9.
Rabinowitz, P., I. Slizovskiy, V. Lamers, S. Trufan, T. Holford, J. Dziura, P. Peduzzi, M. Kane, J. Reif, T. Weiss, and M. Stowe (2014). “Proximity to Natural Gas Wells and Reported Health Status: Results of a Household Survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania.” Environmental Health Perspectives, Advance Publication. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307732
Taylor, P. (2013). “Air Pollution: Bakken boom linked to haze at Theodore Roosevelt Park.” Environment & Energy Publishing: Greenwire. Nov. 7. Online: www.eenews.net/stories/1059990151. Accessed September 2014.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2012). “Class II Wells—Oil and Gas Related Injection Wells (Class II).” Online: water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2. Accessed September 2014.
United States Geological Survey (2013). “Record Number of Oklahoma Tremors Raises Possibility of Damaging Earthquakes.” Online: earthquake.usgs.gov/contactus/golden/newsrelease_05022014.php. Accessed September 2014.
United States Geological Survey (2014). “Induced Earthquakes.” Online: earthquake.usgs.gov/research/induced. Accessed September 2014.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). “Public Health Implications of Ambient Air Exposures to Volatile Organic Compounds as Measured in Rural, Urban, and Oil & Gas Development.” Health Consultation: Public Health Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation. Online: www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/HHW_CSA_Ambient-Air-in-Garfield-County-HC-3.13.2008.pdf. Accessed September 2014.
Vengosh, A., R. Jackson, N. Warner, T. Darrah, A. Kondash (2014). “A Critical Review of the Risks to Water Resources from Unconventional Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States.” Environmental Science & Technology. 48, 15, 8334-8348.
Vidic, R., S. Brantley, J. Vandenbossche, D. Yoxtheimer, J. Abad (2013). “Impact of Shale Gas Development on Regional Water Quality.” Science. 340 (May) 826-835.
Warner, B. and J. Shapiro (2013). “Fractured, Fragmented Federalism: A Study in Fracking Regulatory Policy.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism. 43, 3 (Summer) 474-496.
Warner, N., R. Jackson, T. Darrah, S. Osborn, A. Down, K. Zhao, A. White, and A Vengosh (2012). “Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109, 30 (July 24) 11961-11966.
Warner, N., T. Kresse, P. Hays, A. Down, J. Karr, R. Jackson, A. Vengosh (2013). “Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas.” Applied Geochemistry. 35, 207-220.